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The purpose of this article is to assist mental health counselors and student affairs practitioners to gain a better understanding of the challenges 21st century Black college women may face in their attempt to develop intimate heterosexual relationships with Black men. Consequently, higher education leaders have the opportunity to support Black women in their quest to establish a healthy identity by providing educational opportunities within co-curricular and academic contexts to meet the needs of this unique population of students. The implementation of culturally relevant interactive workshops, case studies, and conversations focused on the positive contributions and value of Black women may aid them as they wrestle with relationship issues during the crucial process of developing a salubrious evolving identity. It is imperative that college counselors and student affairs professionals strive to augment appropriate multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills necessary to effectively assist Black women grappling with relationship issues as they move through the process of identity development. Keywords: Black women, intimate relationships, heterosexual relationships, Black men, identity development. Most students choose to attend college in order to earn an academic degree, while others view the experience as an opportunity to identify a potential spouse for starting a family Pew Research Center,
Since the end of apartheid - and even for some years before that - young South Africans have been free to date whoever they want. But relationships between black people and the country's Asian population remain quite rare - and the approval of parents, and grandparents, is not a given. As his mother adds garlic powder to the mopane worms frying on the stove behind him, Tumelo fidgets in his swivel chair. It's a big day. His girlfriend Ithra and her family are coming over for Saturday lunch. She's texted to say they are minutes away. It will be the first time his black family and her Asian-origin family have met.
He's wearing a casual T-shirt and jeans, but for once he's looking agitated.
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You're not going to get, like, pizza. Earlier in the week, when I met Tumelo and Ithra near Rosebank mall in Johannesburg, they'd explained that two pivotal things were about to happen: they were going to find out whether they would get junior doctor placements together in Cape Town - and they were going to introduce their parents.
It's late and Ithra and Tumelo, both 24, are both at the end of their final year of medical school at Wits University in Johannesburg. They became friends almost immediately in their first year and started going out in their third year. Throughout their friendship both have had other relationships, and both have dated outside their races before - but both feel that they received fewer stares when they had white partners. I think it is a post-apartheid thing, people have a hierarchy that was built up in their head. Apartheid, South Africa's government-sanctioned segregation of races, officially ended in when Nelson Mandela became president.
It was also the year the couple were born - which makes them part of the so-called Born Free generation. They are also free to love whomever they want, at least in theory.
Relationships between black and Asian South Africans remain uncommon, though. If it's interracial, it's a person of colour with a white person. But Blasian is a growing social media tag used by black or Asian people in relationships with one another - sometimes documenting the specific challenges they face. Ithra's family come from Cape Malay, a community of mixed-Asian ethnicities who have been in South Africa for generations.
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Born in Kenya to an Indian father, Ithra moved back to her mother's home country - to Johannesburg - at the age of six. It's where she decided to stay for university and where she would meet Tumelo, who was born in the city. Ithra had a liberal upbringing.
Her mother, Rayana, had actively opposed and organised against apartheid. But not everyone was ready for her relationship with Tumelo. It started with a mass exodus from the wider family Whatsapp group.
At first Ithra didn't know what had happened. When we met, Ithra hadn't spoken to her grandmother Washiela since that moment. It had been almost three months. Ithra and her four sisters mill around in the background, speaking over each other as they cut fruit, boil tea and flip pancakes, in an almost synchronised dance that enables them to avoid bumping into each other. My parents wouldn't have stepped into a black person's home.
Rayana moved back to Johannesburg from Kenya as a single mother and raised her daughters alone until she remarried. As she's describing how she campaigned against apartheid, alongside black activists, there's a sudden screaming from upstairs.
Cape Town! The news came with a 'they'," Rayana exclaims. Ithra and Tumelo have received the news that they have secured junior doctor placements in the same hospital - over 1,km away in Cape Town.
Until now Ithra and Tumelo have lived at home, supervised by their families. But soon they will be moving away together to a new city. While she has always been supportive of her daughter dating a black guy, something suddenly feels different.
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There might be a future between Ithra and Tumelo, and that's maybe what it is," she hesitates. I always encouraged the girls to be open about everything. And now it's a relationship. With a black guy. How open am I really?
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We're gonna get roasted! Ithra and her sisters - who have now made their way from her bedroom where they were huddled over a computer waiting for the junior doctor posting - worry that their mother's honesty about race may be received badly, especially on social media, when this story is published. It sits differently.
I remember being so angry with my parents and my grandparents for not doing something about it. How could we be part of such a cruel and unfair system - and you allowed it?
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Now when you have that kind of purpose, of course I'm going to have kids that I've raised that are free of that reality but I'm also human and I come from a certain community so it does go deeper. At the home of Ithra's grandparents, Washiela and Ashraf, a livestream from Mecca plays on the TV in the background and large calligraphy prints of verses of the Koran are framed on the walls. His wife asks me to sit next to her on the leather couch as I ask why they haven't spoken to their granddaughter for months.
The whites one side. The coloureds one side and the blacks one side.
The tiered levels of apartheid meant that Indian and mixed-race people were given preferential treatment, compared to black people. Then she adds: "You know we were very racist, I am going to be honest with you, because we come from apartheid and that stigma is always there. It will never go away. But it's strange, when it comes to your own family, then it's a different scenario and you have to accept It's the Rainbow Nation.
When Granny Washiela says "Rainbow Nation" she raises her eyebrows and smiles ironically. Attitudes to interracial relationships are an indicator of how far South Africans have travelled in terms of integration and addressing prejudices, according to a report from the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation IJRbut the data suggests that there has been little progress.
Approval rates among white people rose ificantly over this period, though they are still more negative than others about interracial marriage. Approval of interracial marriage among the mixed-race and Indian communities actually fell in the 12 years to At the same time, the of interracial marriages is increasing.
A study by North-West University in Mahikeng showed that in only one marriage in involved people of different races, but by it had become about one in That's 0.
According to the census, three-quarters of South Africa's population is black, and Asians make up just 2. The rest of the population divides more or less equally into white and mixed-race. Paula Quinsee, a relationship coach from Johannesburg, says Blasian couples face particular challenges.
At least black and white people in relationships with each other are both likely to come from Christian families, while in Blasian relationships religion is added to other cultural barriers.
And there is another factor. It's the day of the big meeting and Tumelo's mum, Modjadji, has gone all out. She's spent the morning preparing the mopane worms, tripe and chicken's feet. She's also bought halal meat especially.
There's no way she could have been allowed to bring home a man of another race she says.
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That would have been unheard of. She wants her children to have that freedom, though she doesn't want them to abandon their culture. And that means not compromising on eating chicken feet and tripe, or drinking alcohol, in front of people who may not be used to it. Ithra, Rayana and her husband and Ithra's sisters arrive holding flowers and deep pans containing Asian food: biryani and tandoori chicken.